Frenotomy and frenectomy
A frenum is a naturally occurring elastic tissue attachment, normally seen between the front teeth (either upper or lower). It connects the inner aspect of the lip with the gum. A lack of attached gingiva, in conjunction with a high (closer to the biting surface) frenum attachment, which exaggerates the pull on the gum margin, can result in recession. Additionally, an excessively large frenum can prevent the teeth from coming together with growth or cause them to spring apart after movement resulting in a gap between the front teeth. If pulling is seen or the frenum is too large to allow the teeth to come together, the frenum is surgically released from the gum with a frenotomy. A frenectomy is simply the surgical removal of a frenum.
When Orthodontic treatment is planned or initiated, the removal of an abnormal frenum, with or without a gingival graft, can increase stability and improve success of the final orthodontic result.
pre-ortho: frena between upper front teeth frena contributing to recession on lower incisor
before after (with graft of gum)